The role of nutritional education in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
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Dietitian-Dietetic Department, General Hospital of Athens "Laiko", Athens, Greece
Hellenic Diabetes Association and EMPaKAN, Athens, Greece
Diabetes Nutrition Study Group, Athens, Greece
Publication date: 2022-05-27
Public Health Toxicol 2022;2(Supplement Supplement 1):A81
Scientific Organizations (e.g. ADA, EASD, IDF) have concluded that nutritional education is the cornerstone of preventing and treating diabetes. Large studies, such as Diabetes Prevention Program, showed that weight loss and increased physical activity reduced the incidence of DMT2 in overweight and obese adults and also reduced glucose tolerance by 58%, over 3 years. DPP showed that people with prediabetes should follow intensive behaviour change programs and personalized diet intervention programs with specific goals of improving eating habits, moderate-intensity physical activity (at least 150 minutes / week) and achieving and maintaining 7-10%. loss of initial body weight.
Medical nutritional therapy (MNT) in diabetes has undergone major changes through the modification of guidelines by Organizations, numerous new studies and scientific data, the development of new drugs and new types of insulin, in parallel with the evolution of technology (pumps, CGMs).
Today, in diabetes diet there is no "one size fits all". Dietitians should personalize the dietary treatment, individualise the proportion of macronutrients and take care of the chrononutrition (number and timing of the meals). Finally, a variety of dietary patterns e.g. Mediterranean, vegetarian, low fat, low carbohydrate, ketogenic and the DASH diet can be used for the management of diabetes.
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