Applications of genetics in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes
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Department of Biology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Department of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece
Clinical Genomics and Pharmacogenomics Unit, Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Publication date: 2022-05-27
Public Health Toxicol 2022;2(Supplement Supplement 1):A82
Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases worldwide, projected to affect 693 million adults by 2045. The current consensus for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is that high-quality diets and adherence to a healthy lifestyle provide significant health benefits. Remarkably, however, this consensus alone is not enough and cannot always predict the development of diabetes complications.
On the other hand, numerous genetic studies have demonstrated a clear genetic component to both diabetes and its complications. The explosion of new datasets, both in terms of biobanks and aggregation of cohorts, has more than doubled the number of genetic discoveries for both diabetes and its complications. On the same line, emerging evidence underscores the importance of gene-diet interactions in the improvement of glycaemic biomarkers of the disease.
In this workshop, evidence will be provided supporting the concept that we can achieve better glycaemic control in T2D patients by coupling Mediterranean diets to genetic information in a personalized manner. Furthermore, a case series of n-of-1 cross-over trials of T2D patients will be presented, who have achieved rapid glycaemic control when adhered to a personalized, genetically guided Mediterranean Diet. Finally, new emerging data concerning the development of polygenic risk scores for T2D will be discussed, that take genomic discovery to the next level of prediction and personalized medicine.
Gkouskou K, Grammatikopoulou M, Lazou E, Sanoudou D, Goulis D, Eliopoulos AG. Genetically Guided Medical Nutrition Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Pre-diabetes: A Series of n-of-1 Superiority Trials. Front Nutr. 2022;9:772243. doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.772243
Gkouskou K, Lazou E, Skoufas E, Eliopoulos AG. Genetically Guided Mediterranean Diet for the Personalized Nutritional Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients. 2021;13(2):355. doi:10.3390/nu13020355
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