Nutritional biomarkers as prognostic factors of sarcopenia and their role in disease progression
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Department of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece
Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
Publication date: 2022-05-27
Public Health Toxicol 2022;2(Supplement Supplement 1):A147
Due to the multifactorial pathogenesis of sarcopenia, it is crucial to identify biomarkers that can be used as prognostic and risk factors for sarcopenia.

This narrative review aims to define a set of biomarkers associated with nutrition and sarcopenia. These biomarkers could share individualized monitoring and enable preventable and therapeutic methods. Methods:

Two electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were used. The search strategy is based on controlled vocabulary (MeSH) and includes studies published up to February 2022.

Vitamin D status acts as a useful biomarker for predicting total mortality, hip fractures, early death, and the development of sarcopenia. Higher levels of serum uric acid are also associated with higher handgrip strength and better muscle function in elders and thus, may slow the progression of sarcopenia. Leptin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, promotes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn lead to sarcopenia. That makes leptin a considerable indirect biomarker for physical disability and sarcopenic obesity. Creatinine is, also, a reliable biomarker for muscle mass status because of its easy accessibility and cost-effectiveness. On the other hand, 3-Methylhistidine, is a valuable biomarker for detecting increased muscle catabolism, as excreted in the urine during muscle degradation. In addition, IGF-1, which concentration in plasma stimulated by food intake, is associated with skeletal muscle mass loss, that probably plays a crucial role in the progression of sarcopenia. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in dietary antioxidants and their effects on age-related losses of muscle mass and function.

Many nutritional biomarkers were found to be associated with sarcopenia, and therefore can be used as prognostic indexes and risk factors. Nutrition has an important role in the prevention and management of sarcopenia, affecting muscle mass, strength, and function in elders.

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