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Nutritional prevention of cognitive impairment through dietary patterns and its correlation with sarcopenia
 
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1
Department of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece
 
2
1st Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
 
3
Greek Association of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders "Alzheimer Hellas", Thessaloniki, Greece
 
 
Publication date: 2022-05-27
 
 
Corresponding author
Despoina Tsoumana   

Department of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, International Hellenic University, PO 141, GR-57400, Sindos, Thessaloniki, Greece
 
 
Public Health Toxicol 2022;2(Supplement 1):A105
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
There is a link between sarcopenia and dementia. Sarcopenia could be involved in the pathophysiological process of the cognitive impairment. Diet is a potential lifestyle factor that could modify the risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia because sufficient nutrients intake and dietary food patterns seem to have a protective role in cognitive ability of the elder. The association between diet and cognitive outcomes is stronger for healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, rather than individual nutrients.

Aim:
The aim of this study is to examine the role of diet and dietary patterns in cognitive decline and the correlation between sarcopenia and cognitive dysfunction.

Methodology:
This cross-sectional study included 128 subjects (of mean age 72.4±7.4, 24.2% male) with mild dementia. BIA method was used for body composition analysis. In addition, hand strength and gait speed were measured. EWGSOP 2 criteria were used to define sarcopenia. Moreover Mini Mental State Examination, Mini Nutritional Assessment and Mediterranean diet score were used to assess cognitive function, nutritional status, and to estimate the degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet respectively.

Results:
According to our results, 10.2% were sarcopenic (8.6% sarcopenic and 1.6% severely sarcopenic), 30.5% probably sarcopenic, and 59,4% non-sarcopenic. No significant difference was observed between sarcopenia and cognitive impairment (F=2.52, p=0.06). Post hoc Bonferroni test showed that there was a statistically significant difference in cognitive impairment between people with possible sarcopenia and those without sarcopenia (p=0.046). Furthermore, Pearson correlation showed a tendency for a negative correlation between malnutrition and cognitive impairment (r=-177,p=0.057).

Conclusions:
People with possible sarcopenia have a higher risk of cognitive impairment than non-sarcopenic people, demonstrating the association between sarcopenia and dementia. Also malnutrition causes a negative effect on cognitive impairment.

 
REFERENCES (3)
1.
Anastasiou CA, Yannakoulia M, Kosmidis MH, et al. Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0182048. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182048
 
2.
Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Bahat G, Bauer J, et al. Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing. 2019;48(1):16-31. doi:10.1093/ageing/afy169
 
3.
Wu L, Sun D. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing cognitive disorders: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):41317. doi:10.1038/srep41317
 
ISSN:2732-8929
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