Correlation between peptide hormones and weight and glucose homeostasis among obese and normal weight eastern Mediterranean individuals
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School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Deaprtment of Nutrition and Food, School of Nutrition, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Canada
Centre for Healthy Eating and Food Innovation, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Maastricht University, Venlo, The Netherlands
College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Publication date: 2022-05-27
Public Health Toxicol 2022;2(Supplement 1):A124
Adipose tissue and gut peptide hormones in coordination with the hypothalamus regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis1. Several hormones, including pancreatic polypeptide (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), insulin, and leptin function as satiety signals1,2. In contrast, ghrelin promotes hunger3. The aim of this study was to examine the role of these peptide hormones on weight by looking at obesity markers (Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), percent body fat (%BF)), blood glucose, and the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Thirty obese (OB) adults and 23 normal weight (NW) age- and gender-matched counterparts were recruited in this cross-sectional analysis. OB participants showed significantly higher levels of leptin (62.54±28.76 ng/ml vs 13.92 ±8.67 ng/ml; p<0.001), PYY (82.44±51.81 pg/ml vs 57.60±31.66 pg/ml; p=0.036), GLP-1 (32.74±15.73 pM vs 24.45 ± 9.64 pM; p=0.022), insulin (20.91±10.32 µU/ml vs 8.01±2.47 µU/ml; p<0.001) and HOMA-IR (5.43±2.63 vs 1.95±0.70; p<0.001). NW participants had significantly higher levels of ghrelin (431.7±202.3 pg/ml vs 231.7±130.1 pg/ml; p<0.001); no difference was seen in CCK. GLP-1 was positively correlated with all obesity markers (except for %BF) and glucose homeostasis indicators (except for glucose). Leptin was positively correlated with all markers (except for glucose). PYY was only positively correlated with obesity markers. As for ghrelin, it was inversely correlated with all of the markers except for glucose. In the regression analysis model, leptin was associated with obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis. However, a better understanding of the pathways of body weight and food intake regulating gut and adipose tissue derived hormones will help to find new strategies to treat obesity and its consequences since the effect of some hormones remains controversial.
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