Dietary management of type I diabetes
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University General Hospital of Thessaloniki AHEPA, Thessaloniki, Greece
Publication date: 2022-05-27
Public Health Toxicol 2022;2(Supplement Supplement 1):A79
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is the cornerstone of diabetes mellitus management. Especially in type 1 diabetes mellitus, individualized medical nutrition therapy is recommended to emphasize monitoring carbohydrate intake. Therefore, nutritional training in type I diabetes mellitus consists of primary and comprehensive dietary education.
In the primary nutritional education, the patients have been trained to acknowledge the impact of carbohydrates in postprandial glycemia and the effect of glycemic index and glycemic load of a meal in glycemic excursions. Also, they must be trained in carb counting using scales and the content of foods in carbs. Furthermore, the patients are taught to read nutritional labels to calculate the consuming carbs precisely and make healthy choices. This stage of nutritional education is completed when an experienced registered dietitian nutritionist confirms that the patient calculates correctly the carbs of each meal.
In comprehensive nutritional education, the main topics are: estimation of carb ratio and finding the ideal carb ratios, the timing of bolus, management of hypoglycaemia and delayed prolonged postprandial hyperglycemia after consuming high protein and fat foods. Moreover, the frequency and time of meals that patients must consume based on insulin regimen are essential components of dietary management of type I diabetes mellitus.
Finally, advanced technology in treating type I diabetes mellitus is a useful tool of adequate nutritional management.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2022. Diabetes Care. 2022;45(Suppl 1):S1–S2. doi:10.2337/dc22-Sint
Evert AB, Dennison N, Gardner CD, et al. Nutrition Therapy for Adults with Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(5):731-754. doi:10.2337/dci19-0014
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