The study on the experimental models in vitro toxic properties of nanomaterials in Belarus
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Republican Unitary Enterprise "Scientific and Practical Center of Hygiene", Minsk, Belarus
Publication date: 2021-09-27
Public Health Toxicol 2021;1(Supplement 1):A10
There is no doubt that nanomaterials require special control, regulation and legislation, but the main problem is that there is no legislative base for nanomaterials in the Republic of Belarus.
The aim of our work was to develop methodological approaches for screening safety assessment of nanomaterials on cell cultures.
The main damaging properties of nanomaterials are based on their ability to penetrate and accumulate inside the cell, disrupting the functioning of the internal systems, causing oxidative stress, as well as, when penetrating the cell nucleus, the ability to induce mutations. Thus, for preliminary screening testing of the safety of nanomaterials, it is most appropriate to use a sequential testing scheme based on alternative methods using cell cultures of different origin. On the basis of the main routes of entry of nano-sized particles into the body, cell cultures of similar specifications (A549, CaCo2, skin-muscle embryonic fibroblasts) were selected for research. The developed testing scheme includes a number of methods for determining the general toxic effect, mutagenicity, the ability to assess cell membrane damage and the method of assessing cell membrane damage. method for studying the induction of reactive oxygen species using fluorescein diacetate staining, cytogenetic analysis under a microscope and cytofluorimetric methods).
The study allowed us to develop a specific algorithm for screening assessment of nanomaterials. But the issues of proper sample preparation, as well as a comparative assessment of the number of tested nanoparticles, remained unresolved. We cannot adequately compare the concentrations of large molecular particles (for example, carbon nanotubes, which practically do not penetrate cell membranes, including due to the formation of agglomerates) and low molecular size (for example, silver nanoparticles). Thus, the question of the quantitative determination of nanoparticles for hygienic rationing nanoparticles in products and in the air of the working zone is still open.
No less important is the creation of a scientifically sound mechanism for assessing the safety of nanomaterials, a scientific base and a broad scientific platform for the exchange of experience.