The first 1000 days: The role of nutrition during pregnancy and infancy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease
More details
Hide details
Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy
Publication date: 2022-05-27
Public Health Toxicol 2022;2(Supplement 1):A9
The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) theory, first proposed as the "Barker Hypothesis", is based on the concept that the origins of lifestyle-related disease i.e. cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes etc, is formed at the time of fertilization, embryonic, foetal, and neonatal stages by the interrelation between genes and the environments. Nutrition, either over- or hypo-nutrition, affects profoundly the risk of lifestyle-related adult diseases. Importantly, micro and macronutrients can influence the offspring risk of disease. They act mainly via epigenetics mechanisms that induce programming of pivotal metabolic organs, i.e. the central nervous system. They also influence the health status modulating the gut microbiota that in turn release a number of moieties that serve as key modulators in metabolic pathways.
Nutrients influence also the individual’s inflammatory and redox balance during this window of plastic opportunity. Improving early life environments can reduce non-communicable disease risks and improve health over the life course. A widespread understanding of this evidence may help to reshape structures, guidelines and individual behaviours to better the developmental conditions for the next generations. Yet, translation of the DOHaD concept beyond the research community must be an imperative for health care providers and policy makers.
Bianchi M, Alisi A, Fabrizi M, et al. Maternal Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids During Pregnancy Is Associated With Differential Methylation Profiles in Cord Blood White Cells. Front Genet. 2019;25(10):1050. doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.01050
Briana DD, Malamitsi-Puchner A. Developmental origins of adult health and disease: The metabolic role of BDNF from early life to adulthood. Metabolism. 2018;81:45-51. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2017.11.019
Manco M. Gut microbiota and developmental programming of the brain: from evidence in behavioral endophenotypes to novel perspective in obesity. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:109. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2012.00109